Cancer information / Cancer types / Kidney / Signs and symptoms

American Cancer Society. (2017, August 1). Kidney Cancer Signs and Symptoms. Retrieved from:

American Society of Clinical Oncology. (2018, October). Kidney Cancer: Symptoms and Signs. Retrieved from:

Findley DS, Shuch B & Pantuck AJ. Signs, symptoms and paraneoplastic syndromes. Scardino PT, Lineham WM, Zelefsky MJ & Vogelzang NJ (eds.). (2011). Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. (4th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 4(37): pp. 635-62.

Lane BR, Canter DJ, Rin BL, et al. Cancer of the kidney. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 63:865-884.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Kidney Cancer (Version 2.2019). Retrieved from: