Cancer information / Cancer types / Vulvar / Risks

American Cancer Society. (2015, January). Vulvar Cancer. Retrieved from:

Hacker NF, Eifel PJ. Chapter 13: Vulvar Cancer. Berek JS (ed). (2015). Berek & Hacker's Gynecologic Oncology. (6th Edition). Wolters Kluwer.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2007). Volume 90: Human Papillomaviruses. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100B: Biological Agents. Retrieved from:

Macmillan Cancer Support. (2011, December). Causes of Vulval Cancer. Retrieved from:

Madeleine MM, Daling JR. Cancers of the vulva and vagina. Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr (eds.). (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (3rd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. 55:1068-1074.

Moroney JW, Kunos C, Wilkinson EJ, Levenback CF. Chapter 19: Vulva. Barakat RR, Markman M, Randall ME (eds.). (2013). Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology. (6th Edition).

National Cancer Institute. (2014, March 12). Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Retrieved from: