Cancer information / Cancer types / Anal / Finding cancer early

Czito BG, Ahmed S, Kalady M, et al. Cancer of the anal region. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 61:842-856. Retrieved from:

Grulich AE, Jin F, Poynten IM. Anal cancer. Thun MJ (ed.). (2018). Schottenfeld and Fraumeni Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (4th Edition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 37:707-714.

Meyer JJ, Willett CG, Czito BG. Anal cancer. Jankowiski J, Hawk E (eds.). (2013). Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer. Wiley-Blackwell. 6:137-160.

National Cancer Institute. (2018, February 1). Anal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Retrieved from:

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Anal Carcinoma (Version 2.2018). Retrieved from: