Cancer information / Cancer types / Colorectal / Treatment / Rectal cancer

American Cancer Society. (2018, February 21). Colorectal Cancer. Retrieved from:

Libutti SK, Willett CG, Saltz LB, Levine RA. Cancer of the rectum. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 60: 823 - 841.

National Cancer Institute. (2018, June 7). Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Retrieved from:

Wilkes GM. Colon, rectal, and anal cancers. Yarbro CH, Wujcki D, Holmes Gobel B, (eds.). (2016). Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice. (8th Edition). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. 51: 1423 - 1485.