Cancer information / Cancer types / Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL) / Risks

American Cancer Society. (2016). What are the risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia?. Retrieved from:

Castillo JJ, Reagan JL, Ingham RR, Furman M, Dalia S, Merhi B, Nemr S, Zarrabi A, Mitri J.. Obesity but not overweight increases the incidence and mortality of leukemia in adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. (2012). Leukemia Research. 36(7):868-875.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2011). Volume 100D: Radiation: a review of human carcinogens. Retrieved from:

Karakosta M, Delicha EM, Kouraklis G, Manola KN. Association of various risk factors with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its cytogenetic characteristics. (2016). Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health. 71(6):317-329.

Linet, M.S., Devesa, S.S., & Morgan, G.J.. The leukemias. Schottenfeld, D. & Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. (eds.). (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (3rd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. 44: pp. 841-871.

National Toxicology Program. (2016). 14th Report on Carcinogens. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:

Saberi Hosnijeh F, Romieu I, Gallo V, Riboli E, Tjonneland A, Halkjaer J, et al. Anthropometric characteristics and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). (2013). Cancer Causes and Control. 24(3):427-438.

Wierda WC, O'Brien SM. Chronic lymphocytic leukemias. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Chapter 110.