Cancer information / Cancer types / Anal / Risks

American Cancer Society. (2017, November 13). Risk Factors for Anal Cancer. Retrieved from:

Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND. (2010). WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System. (4th Edition). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Czito BG, Ahmed S, Kalady M, et al. Cancer of the anal region. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 61:842-856. Retrieved from:

Grulich AE, Jin F, Poynten IM. Anal cancer. Thun MJ (ed.). (2018). Schottenfeld and Fraumeni Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (4th Edition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 37:707-714.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2007). Volume 90: Human Papillomaviruses. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100B: Biological agents: a review of human carcinogens. Retrieved from:

Meyer JJ, Willett CG, Czito BG. Anal cancer. Jankowiski J, Hawk E (eds.). (2013). Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer. Wiley-Blackwell. 6:137-160.

National Cancer Institute. (2018, February 1). Anal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Retrieved from:

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Anal Carcinoma (Version 2.2018). Retrieved from:

National Toxicology Program. (2016). 14th Report on Carcinogens. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:

Silverberg MJ, Lau B, Justic AC, et al. Risk of anal cancer in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals in North America. (2012, April 1). PubMed Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine. PMID: 22291097. Retrieved from: