Cancer information / Cancer types / Rhabdomyosarcoma / Risks

Burningham Z, Hasibe M, Spector L & Schiffman JD. The epidemiology of sarcoma. (2012). Clinical Sarcoma Research. BioMed Central. 2:14.

Cripe, TP. Rhabdomyosarcoma. (2013, June 3). Omaha: emedicine. com, Inc..

Grufferman S, Ruymann F, Ognjanovic S, Erhardt EB, & Maurer HM. Prenatal X-ray exposure and rhabdomyosarcoma in children: a report from the children's oncology group. (2009, April). Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. American Association for Cancer Research. 18(4):1271-6. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0775 PMID: 19293315.

Grufferman S, Schwartz AG, Ruymann FB & Maurer HM. Parents' use of cocaine and marijuana and increased risk of rhabdomyosarcoma in their children. (1993, May). Cancer Causes & Control. Springer. 4(3):217-24. PMID: 8318638. Retrieved from:

National Cancer Institute. (2013, April 12). Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.

Ognjanovic S, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, et al. Birth characteristics and the risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma based on histological subtype. (2010, January 5). British Journal of Cancer (BJC). Nature Publishing Group. 102(1):227-31 (PMID: 19997102).

Ross, J.A. & Spector, L.G. Cancers in children. Schottenfeld, D. & Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. (Eds.). (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (3rd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. 65: 1252-1268.

Wang LL, Yustein J, Louis C, et al. Solid tumors of childhood. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, & Rosenberg SA. (2011). Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. (9th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 123: pp. 1760-92.

Wexler LH, Meyer WH, & Helman LJ. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Pizzo, P. A. & Poplack, D. G. (Eds.). (2011). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. (6th Edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 31: pp. 923-953.