Cancer information / Cancer types / Kidney / If cancer spreads

American Cancer Society. (2017, August 1). Kidney Cancer Stages. Retrieved from:

Lane BR, Canter DJ, Rin BL, et al. Cancer of the kidney. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 63:865-884.

National Cancer Institute. (2018, April 5). Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Retrieved from:

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Kidney Cancer (Version 2.2019). Retrieved from: