Cancer information / Cancer 101 / What causes cancer?

American Cancer Society. (2014, November 11). Does This Cause Cancer?. Retrieved from:

American Society of Clinical Oncology. (2015, November). Understanding Cancer Risk. Retrieved from:

Beeghly-Fadiel A, Malen Fair A. Epidemiology. Yarbro CH, Wujcki D, Holmes Gobel B, (eds.). (2016). Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice. (8th Edition). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. 3: 43-77.

Cancer Research UK. (2016, December 29). Can Cancer Be Prevented?. Retrieved from:

Goodman SN and Samet JM. Cause and cancer epidemiology. Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr. (Eds.). (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (3rd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. Chapter 1: pp 3-9.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2016, December 22). Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-117. Retrieved from:

National Cancer Institute. (2015, December 23). Risk Factors for Cancer. Retrieved from:

National Toxicology Program. (2016). 14th Report on Carcinogens. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:

World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). Retrieved from: