Cancer information / Cancer types / Oral / Oral cancer / Precancerous conditions

American Cancer Society. (2016, August 8). Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer.

Cancer Research UK. (2016, June 21). The Mouth and Oropharynx.

Mendenhall WM, Werning JW and Pfister DG. Treatment of head and neck cancer. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, & Rosenberg SA. (2011). Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. (9th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 72:729-80.

Moutasim, K.A, Jenei, V., Sapienza, K., et al. Betel-derived alkaloid up-regulates keratinocyte alphavbeta6 integrin expression and promotes oral submucous fibrosis.. National Library of Medicine. (2011, February). The Journal of Pathology. Retrieved from:

Murchison, DF. Oral growths. Beers, M. H., & Berkow, R., (Eds.). (2016, September). Merck Manual Professional Edition.

NCI. What you need to know about oral cancer. National Cancer Institute. (2009, July). National Cancer Institute (NCI). Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from:

Scully C. (2016, February 12). Medscape Reference: Cancers of the Oral Mucosa.

Wenig,B.M.. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Precursors and Problematic Variants. (2002). Modern Pathology. Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved from: