Cancer information / Cancer types / Prostate / Risks

Canadian Cancer Society's Advisory Committee on Cancer Statistics. (2017). Canadian Cancer Statistics 2017. Toronto, ON: Canadian Cancer Society.

Cheng I, Witte JS, Jacobsen SJ, et al. Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men's Health Study. (2010, January 15). PloS One. Public Library of Science (PLoS). 5(1):e8736. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2004). Volume 83: Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100C: Arsenic, metals, fibres and dusts: a review of human carcinogens. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100F: Chemical agents and related occupations: a review of human carcinogens. Retrieved from:

Lewis-Mikhael AM, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Ofir Giron T, Olmedo-Requena R, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Jimenez-Moleon JJ. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (2016, February). Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 73(2):134-144.

Mersch J, Jackson MA, Park M, et al. Cancers associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations other than breast and ovarian. American Cancer Society. (2015, January 15). Cancer. 121(2):269-275. Retrieved from:

Schenk JM, Kristal AR, Arnold KB, et al. Association of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. (2011, June 15). American Journal of Epidemiology. 173(12):1419-1428. Retrieved from:

Schenk JM, Till C, Hsing AW, et al. Serum androgens and prostate cancer risk: results from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. (2016, February). Cancer Causes and Control. 27(2):175-182. Retrieved from:

Scher HI, Scardino PT, Zelefsky. Cancer of the prostate. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 68:932-980.

Tangen CM, Neuhouser ML, Stanford JL. Prostate cancer. Thun MJ (ed.). (2018). Schottenfeld and Fraumeni Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (4th Edition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 53:997-1018.

World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. (2018). Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from:

World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). (2014). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Prostate Cancer. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). Retrieved from: