Cancer information / Cancer types / Renal pelvis and ureter / Risks

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100A: Pharmaceuticals - A Review of Human Carcinogens. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100E: Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions. Retrieved from:

Matic M, Dragicevic B, Pekmezovic T, et al. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy areas of Serbia. (2016). Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 240(1):25-30. Retrieved from:

McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Tarone RE, Blot WJ. Renal cancer. Schottenfeld, D. & Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. (eds.). (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (3rd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. 57: pp.1087-1100.

National Cancer Institute. (2015, October). Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Treatment for Health Professionals (PDQ®).

National Toxicology Program. (2014). 13th Report on Carcinogens. (13th Edition). Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:

Stiborova M, Arlt VM, Schmeiser HH. Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology. (2016). Archives of Toxicology. DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1819-3.