Cancer information / Diagnosis and treatment / Pain / Assessing pain

American Cancer Society. (2015, Sept 23). Cancer Pain.

American Society of Clinical Oncology. (2017). Managing Cancer-Related Pain: A Guide for Patients, Families and Caregivers.

Cancer Care Nova Scotia. (2005, November 24). Guidelines for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. Halifax: Cancer Care Nova Scotia.

Symptom management pocket guides: pain. Cancer Care Ontario. (2010, August). Cancer Care Ontario. Toronto, ON: Cancer Care Ontario.

Cancer Care Ontario's symptom management guides-to-practice: pain. Cancer Care Ontario. (2010, August). Cancer Care Ontario. Toronto, ON: Cancer Care Ontario.

Cancer Research UK. (2014, Feb 27). Cancer and pain control. Retrieved from:

Fisch, M. J., and Cleeland, C. S. Managing cancer pain. Skeel, R. T., (Ed.). (2003). Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy. (6th Edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 31: pp. 650-673.

Gallagher, R. Cancer pain. Jovey, R. D. (Ed.). (2002). Managing Pain: The Canadian Healthcare Professional's Reference. Toronto: Healthcare & Financial Publishing. 13: pp. 129-136.

Lavoie Smith, E. Cancer pain. Varricchio, C., Pierce, M., Hinds, P. S., & Ades, T. B. (2004). Cancer Source Book for Nurses. (8th Edition). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 23: pp. 349-360.

Librach, S. L., & Squires, B. P. (2000, January). Pain Manual: Principles and Issues in Cancer Pain Management. Toronto: Pegasus Healthcare International.

Cancer pain. Macmillan Cancer Support. (2011, April 1). Macmillan Cancer Support. London, UK: Macmillan Cancer Support.

National Cancer Institute. (2017, August 30). Cancer Pain (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Retrieved from:

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Adult Cancer Pain (Version 2.2017).

Paice, J. A. Pain. Yarbro, C. H., Frogge, M. H. & Goodman, M. (2004). Cancer Symptom Management. (3rd Edition). Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 6: pp. 77-96.

Stratton Hill, C., Cleeland, C. S., and Gustein, H. B. Effective pain treatment in cancer patients. Lenhard, R. E., Jr., Osteen, R. T., & Gansler, T. (Eds.). (2001). Clinical Oncology. Atlanta: American Cancer Society. 33: pp. 811-822.