Cancer information / Cancer types / Anal / Anal cancer / Precancerous conditions

Czito BG, Ahmed S, Kalady M, Eng C. Cancer of the Anal Region. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 61:842-856.

ElNaggar AC, Santoso JT. Risk factors for anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital dysplasia. (2013). Obstetrics and Gynecology. 122:218-223. Retrieved from:

Fox PA. Treatment options for anal intraepithelial neoplasia and evidence for their effectiveness. (2012). Sexual Health. 9:587-592.

Penn Medicine. (2015, February 13). Anal Cancer: The Basics. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from:§ion=cancer_types.

Simpson JAD, Scholefield JH. Diagnosis and management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer. (2011, November 4). BMJ. 343:d6818.