Cancer information / Cancer types / Testicular / Risks

American Cancer Society. (2015, January 20). What are the risk factors for testicular cancer?.

Barbaro, G and G. Barbarini. HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (2007, January 15). Oncology Reports. Spandidos Publications. 17: pp. 1121-1126.

Beranger R, Le Cornet C, Schuz J, Fervers B. Occupational and environmental exposures associated with testicular germ cell tumours: systematic review of prenatal and life-long exposures. (2013). PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077130.

Frost, G. et al. Mortality and cancer incidence among British agricultural pesticide users. (2011, June). Occupational Medicine. Oxford University Press. 61:pp. 301-310.

Giannandrea, F. et al. Pesticide exposure and serum organochlorine residuals among testicular cancer patients and healthy controls. (2011). Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes. Taylor Francis. 46: pp. 78-787.

Goedert, J. J. et al. Risk of germ cell tumors among men with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. (2007, June 4). Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. American Association for Cancer Research. 16: pp.1266-1269.

Greene MH, et al. Familial testicular germ cell tumors in adults: 2010 summary of genetic risk factors and clinical phenotype. (2010). Endocrine-Related Cancer. 17(2):109-121.

Grosse Y, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Talla L, Mattock H, Straif K. Carcinogenicity of some industrial chemicals. (2016, February 23). Lancet Oncology.

Gurney J, Shaw C, Stanley J, Signal V, Sarfati D. Cannabis exposure and risk of testicular cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (2015). BMC Cancer. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1905-6.

Hanson HA, Anderson RE, Aston KI, Carrell DT, Smith KR, Hotaling JM. Subfertility increases risk of testicular cancer: evidence from population-based semen samples. (2015). Fertility and Sterility. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.10.027.

Heller HT, Oliff MC, Doubilet PM, O'Leary MP, Benson CB. Testicular microlithiasis: prevalence and association with primary testicular neoplasm. (2014). Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 42(7): 423-426.

Holl K, Lundin E, Surcel HM, et al. Endogenous steroid hormone levels in early pregnancy and risk of testicular cancer in the offspring: a nested case-referent study. (2009). International Journal of Cancer. 124(12): 2023-2938.

Ide CW. Cancer incidence and mortality in serving whole-time Scottish firefighters 1984–2005. (2014). Occupational Medicine. 64:421-427. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100A: Pharmaceuticals - A Review of Human Carcinogens. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). Volume 100B: Biological Agents. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2010). Volume 96: Alcohol Consumption and Ethyl Carbamate. Retrieved from:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2016). Volume 113: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and Some Organochlorine Insecticides. Retrieved from:

Lacson, JCA et al. Population-based case-control study of recreational drug use and testis cancer risk confirms an association between marijuana use and nonseminoma risk. (2012). Cancer. 118(21): pp. 5374-5383.

Le Cornet C, Fervers B, Dalton SO, et al. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides: a register-based case-control study in the Nordic countries (NORD-TEST study). (2015). Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 72(11): 805-811.

McGlynn KA, Trabert, B. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer. (2012). Nature Reviews Urology. 9: pp. 339-349.

Moller H, Knudsen LB, Lynge E. Risk of testicular cancer after vasectomy: cohort study of over 73,000 men. (2005, July 30). British Medical Journal (BMJ). BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

Purude MP, et al. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of organochlorine compournds and risk of testicular germ cell tumors. (2009). Environmental Health Perspectives. 117(10):1515-1519.

Ramlau-Hansen CH, Olesen AV, Parner ET, Sorensen HT, Olsen J. Perinatal markers of estrogen exposure and risk of testicular cancer: follow-up of 1,333,873 Danish males born between 1950 and 2002. (2009). Cancer Causes and Control. 20(9): 1587-1592.

Richiardi L, Tamimi R, & Adami H.. Testicular cancer. Adami, H.-O., Hunter, D., & Trichopoulos, D. (2008). Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. (2nd Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 21: 555-572.

Sarma AV, McLaughlin JC, Schottenfeld D. Testicular cancer. Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni J, Jr. (eds.). (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. (3rd Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. 60:1151 - 1165.

Trabert B, Sigurdson AJ, Sweeney AM et al. Marijuana use and testicular germ cell tumors. (2011, February 15). Cancer. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, Inc. 117(4):848-53.

Wang T, Liu L, Luo J, Liu T, Wei A. A meta-analysis of the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and incidence of testicular cancer. (2015). Urology Journal. 12(2):2057-2064.

Yousif L, Hammer GP Blettner M, Zeeb H. Testicular cancer and viral infections: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. (2013). Journal of Medical Virology. 85(12): 2165-2175.