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Laser surgery uses a laser (an intense beam of light) to make bloodless cuts in tissue. It is also called laser therapy, photoablation or photocoagulation.
Laser surgery is most often combined with other cancer treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Why laser surgery is done
Laser surgery may be used in cancer treatment to:
- destroy abnormal tissue or small tumours on or near the surface of the skin
- relieve symptoms caused by tumours, such as pain, bleeding or shortness of breath
- shrink a tumour causing a blockage
Laser surgery is most often used to treat precancerous conditions or carcinoma in situ of the cervix, vagina, vulva or penis.
Large tumours can’t be removed with laser surgery.
How laser surgery is done
Laser surgery is usually done in a clinic or hospital operating room. Depending on what type of laser surgery you are having, you may be given an anesthetic or sedative before the procedure. Your doctor may use an endoscope (a tube-like instrument with a light and lens) to find the tumour inside of an organ. When the tumour or abnormal area is found, the endoscope is used to aim the laser beam to treat the tissue.
The laser beam heats and vaporizes abnormal cells, so that a tumour is removed or made smaller to relieve symptoms, like a blockage or bleeding. The laser may be used to cut a small piece of tissue to be removed so it can be looked at under a microscope.
Types of laser
Lasers are named for the gas, liquid, or solid used to make the light. Different types of lasers can be used in laser surgery. They differ in how deep the laser cuts into tissues. The following 3 types of lasers are most commonly used in cancer treatment.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser removes thin layers from the surface of the skin without going into deeper layers. It is used to treat tumours on the surface of the skin or organ (they have not grown deeply into the tissue). It is also used to treat certain precancerous conditions.
Argon lasers can only go through a thin layer of tissue. This type of laser is used to treat some types of eye cancer and skin cancer. It may also be used to remove a polyp during a colonoscopy. Argon lasers are used for photodynamic therapy (PDT), which uses drugs that become active when they are exposed to light (called photosensitizers) to destroy cancer cells.
Nd:YAG lasers can go deeper into tissue than other types of lasers. This type of laser can be carried through fibre optic cables in an endoscope to treat parts of the body that are hard to reach. Nd:YAG lasers are used to treat certain types of cancer, including throat, skin, liver and prostate cancers. Because they can make blood clot quickly, they are also used to stop bleeding.
Side effects can occur with any type of treatment, but not everyone has them or experiences them in the same way. Side effects of laser surgery include bleeding, pain and fever.
Special considerations for children
Preparing children before a test or procedure can help lower their anxiety, increase their cooperation and develop their coping skills. This includes explaining to children what will happen during the test, such as what they will see, feel and hear.
Preparing a child for laser surgery depends on the age and experience of the child. Find out more about helping your child cope with tests and treatments.
A very early stage of cancer in which abnormal cells have not yet invaded surrounding tissues.
Treatment with drugs that become active when exposed to light (photosensitizers).
During PDT, the photosensitizer is applied to the skin or injected into a vein and cancer cells absorb it. After a period of time, the cancer cells are exposed to light, which activates the photosensitizer and destroys the cancer cells.
Also called photochemotherapy, photoradiation therapy and phototherapy.