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Medical marijuana and cannabinoids
Marijuana comes from the cannabis plant. The main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). THC is a type of cannabinoid. There are many other types of cannabinoids in marijuana. Cannabinoids are chemicals that act on certain receptors on cells in our body, especially cells in the central nervous systemcentral nervous systemThe brain and spinal cord, which work together to control all the functions of the body..
Some people believe that marijuana can help control or relieve some of the symptoms of cancer or the side effects of cancer treatments. But research studies done so far do not give a clear answer about the effectiveness of smoking marijuana. Research does show that some cannabinoids can help with some symptoms and side effects, and drugs containing cannabinoids have been developed to treat pain, nausea and vomiting.
Marijuana is an illegal substance in Canada. The Canadian government allows seriously ill people access to marijuana for medical reasons. This is called medical marijuana.
People who want to use medical marijuana must get a medical document (like a prescription) from a doctor or nurse practitioner. With this document, they can purchase medical marijuana through licensed producers in Canada. It comes in many forms including dried marijuana, marijuana oil, or fresh marijuana buds or leaves that can be smoked, vaporized, eaten in food or drunk in a tea.
Health Canada’s Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR) give people with cancer the option to use medical marijuana to help manage their symptoms and side effects. Talk to your healthcare team about the benefits and risks of using medical marijuana. They can help you decide if it is right for you.
Find out more about Health Canada’s medical marijuana regulations.
Relieving symptoms and side effects
Using medical marijuana, drugs containing cannabinoids or both may help you relax and give you a sense of well-being. But studies on the effectiveness of marijuana have had different results. Some people with cancer may find using medical marijuana or drugs that contain cannabinoids helps them cope with these symptoms and side effects.
Nausea and vomiting
Several studies have shown that some cannabinoids can relieve nausea, vomiting or both. These are side effects of some cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Nabilone is a pill that has synthetic cannabinoids. It is approved in Canada to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It’s sometimes given to people with cancer if standard antinausea drugs do not help relieve these symptoms.
Find out more about nausea and vomiting.
Loss of appetite
Loss of appetite is a common problem for people with cancer. Loss of appetite and weight loss (which is called cachexia when it is severe) often occur together.
Some people find that medical marijuana can increase their appetite. Several clinical trials looked at marijuana’s effects on appetite or weight loss in people with cancer. To date, these studies haven’t shown for certain that marijuana can effectively improve appetite. Research into whether or not cannabinoids can help people with cancer deal with loss of appetite hasn’t had clear results.
Find out more about loss of appetite.
Some people claim that medical marijuana can help relieve long-term (chronic) or severe pain. Research studies done so far do not give a clear answer about the effectiveness of smoking marijuana to relieve pain.
Some clinical trials showed that cannabinoids help reduce pain in some people.
Sativex is a combination of delta-9-THC (Tetranabinex) and cannabidiol (Nabidiolex). It has been approved for use in Canada as a spray that can be applied to the cheek inside the mouth. Savitex may be used to relieve pain from advanced cancer that can’t be relieved with the strongest dose of opioids.
Side effects and risks of medical marijuana and cannabinoids
The benefits and risks of medical marijuana have not been thoroughly reviewed by Health Canada, and individual products have not gone through an approval process. When approving a drug, Health Canada reviews the evidence to make sure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks and negative side effects. Talk to your healthcare team if you are thinking about using medical marijuana or drugs that contain cannabinoids. There is not enough information to know how using medical marijuana will interact with drugs and cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy.
Some studies show that smoking marijuana over a long period of time may increase the risk of lung and other cancers. Other studies did not have the same results. Using marijuana may also cause these and other side effects:
- problems with memory and concentration
- sensory changes, including a lack of balance and slower reaction times
- dry mouth
- rapid heart beat
- a rise in blood pressure
Ongoing research into marijuana and cannabinoids
Currently, researchers are studying marijuana and drugs that contain cannabinoids to find out more about how they might effectively relieve symptoms of cancer or side effects of cancer treatments. More research is needed to find out the dose and type of marijuana that helps the most with the fewest side effects, the risks and benefits of using medical marijuana for a long time and how medical marijuana might interact with other drugs used to treat cancer.
Researchers are also still trying to find out if marijuana or cannabinoids should be used as medicine to treat certain diseases, including cancer. Research into the effects of cannabinoids on cancer cells in vitroin vitroOccurring in an artificial environment (such as a lab) outside of the body. In vitro is Latin for in glass (as in a test tube). and on experimental animals has shown some promise. But this research is still in the very early stages. Much more study is needed before marijuana or cannabinoids can be used as a cancer treatment.