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Risk factors for kidney cancer
A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. It could be a behaviour, substance or condition. Most cancers are the result of many risk factors. But sometimes kidney cancer develops in people who don’t have any of the risk factors described below.
Kidney cancer occurs most often in people older than 50. It is more common in men than in women.
Risk factors are generally listed in order from most to least important. But in most cases, it is impossible to rank them with absolute certainty.
There is convincing evidence that the following factors increase your risk for kidney cancer.
Your risk for kidney cancer increases with the amount of tobacco you smoke and the length of time you smoke.
Overweight and obesity increase the risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common type of kidney cancer. Researchers are trying to find out how overweight and obesity increase the risk.
It is not clear exactly how high blood pressure increases the risk for kidney cancer.
The following inherited genetic conditions increase the risk of developing different types of cancerous tumours of the kidney. People with these genetic conditions develop kidney cancer at a younger age than other people. These genetic conditions are not very common. They cause only a small number of all kidney cancers.
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) is a rare inherited disorder that causes tumours and cysts to develop in different parts of the body, including the kidney. Tumours usually appear during early adulthood. VHL increases the risk of developing clear cell RCC.
Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC) is an inherited type of kidney cancer where people develop many papillary RCC tumours in both kidneys. It is also known as papillary RCC type 1.
Hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) increases the risk of developing non-cancerous tumours, called leiomyomas, in the skin or uterus. It also increases the risk of developing papillary RCC type 2.
Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome is a very rare genetic condition that affects the skin and lungs. It also increases the risk of certain types of tumours, including cancerous and non-cancerous kidney tumours. People with BHD can develop different types of kidney cancer, such as chromophobe RCC and clear cell RCC.
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) can cause non-cancerous tumours to form in many organs of the body, including the eyes, skin, brain, lungs, heart and kidneys. People with TS have a higher risk of developing kidney cysts and kidney cancer. They may develop renal angiomyolipoma (a non-cancerous tumour of the kidney), chromophobe RCC or clear cell RCC.
End-stage kidney disease is when the kidneys can no longer remove waste products from the blood, so a person needs a kidney transplant or dialysis. Dialysis is a procedure that takes the place of the kidneys and removes waste products from the blood.
People on dialysis for a long time can develop cysts in their kidneys (acquired cystic kidney disease). Acquired cystic kidney disease in turn increases the risk of kidney cancer. The risk of kidney cancer appears to increase the longer a person is on dialysis.
People who have had a kidney transplant also seem to have a greater chance of developing kidney cancer in the other (non-transplanted) kidney.
People who have a first-degree relative (parent, brother, sister or child) with kidney cancer have an increased risk of also developing kidney cancer. The risk is stronger if the relative is a brother or sister.
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent mainly used to remove grease from metal. It is also sometimes used in dry cleaning. People who come into contact with TCE at work have a higher risk of developing kidney cancer. The risk increases with higher levels of TCE.
Research shows that the taller a person is, the greater their risk for kidney cancer. It is not exactly clear how being tall increases the risk.
Possible risk factors
The following factors have been linked with kidney cancer, but there is not enough evidence to show for sure that they are risk factors. More research is needed to clarify the role of these factors for kidney cancer.
- contact with welding fumes or cadmium at work
- horseshoe kidney (an uncommon birth defect where the tissue forming the kidneys does not divide into 2 separate kidneys)
- arsenic in drinking water
- personal history of thyroid cancer
- contact with radiation
- hepatitis C infection
No link to kidney cancer
Significant evidence shows no link between kidney cancer and drinking coffee or tea. Evidence also shows that drinking alcohol (up to 2 drinks a day) decreases the risk for kidney cancer. However, it is important to remember that there is strong evidence that drinking alcohol increases the risk of several other cancers. Drinking alcohol should not be used to lower the risk for kidney cancer.
Questions to ask your healthcare team
To make the decisions that are right for you, ask your healthcare team questions about risks.
A sac in the body that is usually filled with fluid or semi-solid material.
A surgical procedure to remove the uterus (womb). The cervix (the lower, narrow part of the uterus) may also be removed.
Other structures may be removed during a hysterectomy, including the ovaries (oophorectomy).
Different types of hysterectomy include partial hysterectomy, total hysterectomy and radical hysterectomy.
A hysterectomy may be performed through the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy) or through the abdomen wall (abdominal hysterectomy).