Human papillomavirus HPV

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 100 different types of viruses. More than 40 types of HPV are transmitted through sexual intercourse, genital skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. These types can infect the genital areas of both men and women, including the penis, anus, vulva, vagina and cervix, as well as the oral cavity and throat (the oropharynx).

It is estimated that about 75% of sexually active men and women will have at least 1 HPV infection in their lifetime. Young women 20-24 years old generally have the highest rates of cancer-causing HPV infection (24%). Infection rates decrease as women get older because most develop immunity against the virus.

Sexually transmitted HPV are either high-risk or low-risk.

High-risk HPV
Infection with high-risk HPV can cause the cells in a woman’s cervix to change or become abnormal. These precancerous changes can lead to cervical cancer. HPV 16 and 18 are the most common high-risk types and are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers.

Infection with high-risk HPV, especially HPV 16, is also linked to cancers of the penis, anus, vulva, vagina, as well as the oral cavity and throat. Not all cases of these rare cancers are linked to having an HPV infection.

Low-risk HPV
Infection with low-risk HPV doesn’t cause precancerous changes in the cervix and doesn’t increase a woman’s risk of cervical cancer. But low-risk types of HPV can cause genital warts. The two low-risk types of HPV that are responsible for 90% of genital warts are HPV 6 and 11.

HPV 11 can also cause recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (tumours that grow inside the larynx, vocal cords or respiratory tract). This is a rare condition that can affect children, adolescents, and young adults.

Symptoms of HPV infection

Most people will never know they have been infected because HPV usually doesn’t cause any symptoms (unless you are infected with the type that causes genital warts). This means you can get HPV and pass it along without ever knowing it. While an HPV infection can’t be treated, what it causes can.

  • Precancerous cervical changes can develop if there is a persistent or continuous high-risk HPV infection. Precancerous cervical changes and cervical cancer can be treated.
  • Genital warts caused by low-risk types of HPV can appear weeks or months after skin-to-skin sexual contact with an infected person. There are treatments for genital warts

HPV and cervical cancer

Most men and women who are sexually active will have an HPV infection at some point over their lifetime. In most cases, high-risk type HPV infections go away on their own within a few months. For most women, the virus will no longer be detected after 2 years. Sometimes the HPV infection does not go away. This can lead to changes in the cells of the cervix. These changes can develop into cervical cancer if they are not detected early and treated.

Preventing HPV infection

The only sure way to prevent HPV infection is to completely avoid any genital contact with another individual. If you are sexually active, you can reduce your risk by:

  • having as few sexual partners as possible
  • being in a monogamous relationship with someone who hasn’t had a lot of sexual partners
  • using condoms

Using a condom can reduce HPV infection if it is put on before skin-to-skin sexual contact. However, areas not covered by a condom still allow some skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity. So using them will reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of HPV infection.

Two vaccines that protect against HPV 16 and 18 infections are available in Canada.


Find out more about HPV vaccines.