An x-ray is an imaging test that uses small doses of radiation to produce pictures of internal organs and structures of the body.
Some x-rays use a contrast medium to show organs and structures more clearly.
Why an x-ray is done
An x-ray may be done to:
- follow up suspicious findings from a physical examination or laboratory test
- find out the size, shape and location of tumours
- see how far cancer has spread and if it is in other organs and tissues (staging)
- find out if cancer treatment is working by comparing the size of the tumour before, during and after treatment
- screen for some types of cancer
How an x-ray is done
An x-ray is usually done as an outpatient procedure in the x-ray (radiology) department of a hospital or clinic. This means that you don’t stay overnight. The test usually takes 10 to 15 minutes, but it may take longer.
Before you have an x-ray, it is important to tell the x-ray technologist or radiologist if you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant. If a contrast medium will be used, it is important that you tell the x-ray technologist or radiologist if you are breastfeeding.
You don’t usually need to do anything to prepare for a basic x-ray without a contrast medium. If you are having an x-ray with a contrast medium, you may be asked to:
- not eat or drink anything for a certain number of hours before the test
- take a laxative
- have an enema
The contrast medium may be given:
- by mouth (orally)
- by needle into a vein (intravenously)
- through the rectum (called an enema)
- through a thin tube (catheter) inserted into different body tissue
You will be asked to remove clothing, jewellery and other objects that will be in the x-ray field and may interfere with the quality of the x-ray. Depending on the area being studied, you will lie on an x-ray table or will stand or sit in front of an x-ray machine. You may have a lead apron placed over your pelvic area to protect your reproductive organs.The x-ray machine is positioned over the area to be imaged.
When the x-ray is taken, you must stay very still and you may be asked to hold your breath. The x-ray technologist leaves the room or goes behind a shield while the x-ray is taken. You will hear a small beep or buzz when the x-ray is finished. You may be asked to change position so that x-rays can be taken from different angles.
X-rays use low levels of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is strong enough to damage cells in our bodies and increase the chance of developing cancer. X-rays are strictly monitored and controlled to make sure they use the least possible amount of radiation. Even with multiple and repeated x-rays, the total dose of radiation and the associated risk is small. The benefits of having an x-ray outweigh the risk of exposure to the small amount of radiation received during the scan.
On rare occasions, the contrast medium may cause an allergic reaction.
What the results mean
The shadow-like images on an x-ray are made from radiation being absorbed differently by different body tissues. Bones absorb the most radiation and appear white. Fat and other soft tissues absorb less radiation and appear in various shades of grey. Air absorbs the least radiation and structures filled with air (such as the lungs) appear black.
X-rays can be used to look for and examine some types of tumours. Most tumours are soft tissue and do not show up well on x-ray. Lung tumours show up well because of the air around them in the lungs.
An x-ray cannot always show the difference between a cancerous (malignant) tumour and a non-cancerous (benign) tumour.
What happens if the results are abnormal
Your doctor will decide whether further tests, procedures, follow-up care or additional treatment are needed.
Special considerations for children
Preparing children before a test or procedure can help lower their anxiety, increase their cooperation and develop their coping skills. This includes explaining to children what will happen during the test, such as what they will see, feel and hear.
Preparing a child for an x-ray depends on the age and experience of the child. Find out more about helping your child cope with tests and treatments.
A substance used in some diagnostic procedures to help parts of the body show up better on x-rays or other imaging tests.
In most cases, contrast medium is injected into or around the structure to be examined.
Also called contrast dye or contrast agent.
A type of high-energy radiation that can remove particles from an atom or molecule resulting in charged ions. These charged ions can cause changes to cells’ DNA that can damage or kill the cells. This can increase the risk of cancer.
Ionizing radiation is present in the atmosphere. It can also come from medical tests or treatments, such as x-rays or radiation therapy.
Taking action against all cancers
The latest Canadian Cancer Statistics report found that of all newly diagnosed cancers in 2017, half are expected to be lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Learn what you can do to reduce the burden of cancer.