A urinalysis is a test that measures substances found in urine, such as electrolyteselectrolytesA substance in the blood and other body fluids that carries an electric charge. Electrolytes are responsible for the movement of nutrients and wastes into and out of cells to keep body fluids balanced and to allow muscles to function properly., hormoneshormonesA substance that regulates specific body functions, such as metabolism, growth and reproduction. or waste products of metabolismmetabolismThe chemical processes in the body that create and use energy. It includes breaking down food and transforming it into energy, eliminating wastes and toxins, breathing, circulating blood and regulating temperature.. It is one of the many studies that can be done to examine urine.
A urinalysis may be done:
A urinalysis test is usually done in a private laboratory or hospital laboratory. Urine is collected in a clean container (at home, the doctor’s office or laboratory). No special preparation is usually needed, unless specific urine studies are also being done. These urine studies may require food restrictions, medication restrictions or fasting overnight.
The method of collecting the urine may vary:
The urine sample collected is sent to the laboratory to be analyzed and examined under a microscope.
A complete urinalysis involves visual examination, chemical examination and microscopic examination. Many abnormalities in urine are not cancer-related. Diet, medications, physical activity, stress and many other factors can affect urine study results.
ketones (by-products of metabolism)
bilirubin (a by-product of red blood cell breakdown)
white blood cells (WBCs or leukocytes)
Note: Not all components of urine or urinalysis findings are listed above. Only the main cancer-related ones have been included
The doctor will decide if more tests, procedures, follow-up care or additional treatment are needed.