A stool test examines the stool (poop). Stool tests are useful for looking at problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Why a stool test is done
A stool test may be done to check for:
- bleeding inside the GI tract
- infection from bacteria, viruses or fungus
- digestive conditions
Screening for colorectal cancer uses stool tests to check for bleeding inside the GI tract. Find out more about screening for colorectal cancer.
Types of stool tests
There are several types of stool tests. The type of stool test used depends on why the test is being done and what the doctor is looking for.
- A gFOBT (guaiac-based fecal occult blood test) uses a chemical reaction on a paper card to find traces of blood in the stool that you can’t see.
- A FIT (fecal immunochemical test) uses specific antibodies for human blood to find traces of blood in the stool that you can’t see.
- A stool culture looks for bacteria that are not normally found in the GI tract.
- Stool fat testing looks for extra fat in the stool to see if the body is having trouble absorbing fat from food.
How a stool test is done
A stool sample is usually collected at home. Wear latex gloves and follow your doctor’s instructions for collecting and saving the stool sample.
Different methods can be used to collect the stool, including:
- using a hat-shaped plastic container placed over the toilet bowl
- placing plastic wrap loosely over the toilet bowl
- lining a diaper with plastic wrap (for infants or toddlers)
If urine (pee) is mixed with the stool or if the stool touches the inside of the toilet bowl, another sample will have to be collected.
The stool sample will be looked at under a microscope at the lab.
What the results mean
Normal stool usually appears brown, soft and well-formed in consistency. It does not contain blood, mucus, pus or harmful micro-organisms.
Abnormal results from different types of tests may be caused by:
- inflammation of the intestine, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease
- hemorrhoids (enlarged, swollen veins inside or outside of the anus)
- polyps (growths attached to the colon or rectum)
- anal fissures (thin tears in the lining of the anus)
- peptic ulcers
- digestive conditions, such as not absorbing certain fats or other nutrients
- use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
What happens if the results are abnormal
Your doctor may recommend more tests, procedures, follow-up care or treatment.
Special considerations for children
Preparing children before a test or procedure can help lower their anxiety, increase their cooperation and develop their coping skills. This includes explaining to children what will happen during the test, such as what they will see, feel and hear.
Preparing a child for a stool test depends on the age and experience of the child. Find out more about helping your child cope with tests and treatments.
Referring to or having to do with the digestive organs.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, or digestive tract, includes the mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
What’s the lifetime risk of getting cancer?
The latest Canadian Cancer Statistics report shows about half of Canadians are expected to be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime.