Tests and procedures
Diagnosing and treating cancer can be complicated. It may involve different tests and procedures to confirm that there is cancer, determine the type of tumour and treat the cancer.
Your doctor may also order tests to check your overall health, to find out how the cancer responds to treatment and as part of follow-up after treatment.
Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125)
Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3)
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Cell and tissue studies
Central venous catheter
Clinical breast exam
Colostomy and ileostomy
Complete blood count (CBC)
Computed tomography (CT) scan
Abnormal pap test results
Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND)
Peripherally inserted central catheter
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Pulmonary function test
Great progress has been made
Some cancers, such as thyroid and testicular, have survival rates of over 90%. Other cancers, such as pancreatic, brain and esophageal, continue to have very low survival rates.