Chemotherapy for stomach cancer
Chemotherapy uses anticancer, or cytotoxic, drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is sometimes used to treat stomach cancer. Your healthcare team will consider your personal needs to plan the drugs, doses and schedules of chemotherapy. You may also receive other treatments.
Chemotherapy is given for different reasons. You may have chemotherapy to:
- destroy cancer cells in the body
- shrink a tumour before other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy (called neoadjuvant chemotherapy)
- destroy cancer cells left behind after surgery and reduce the risk of the cancer recurring (called adjuvant chemotherapy) - radiation therapy may be given at the same time (called adjuvant chemoradiation)
- relieve pain or control the symptoms of advanced stomach cancer (called palliative chemotherapy)
Chemotherapy is usually a systemic therapy. This means that the drugs travel through the bloodstream to reach and destroy cancer cells all over the body, including those that may have broken away from the primary tumour in the stomach.
Chemotherapy drugs used for stomach cancer
Chemotherapy for stomach cancer may be given as a single drug or as a combination of 2 or more drugs. The most common chemotherapy drugs used to treat stomach cancer are:
- 5-fluorouracil (Adrucil, 5-FU) – leucovorin (folinic acid) is often given along with 5-fluorouracil to make 5-fluorouracil work better
- capecitabine (Xeloda)
- cisplatin (Platinol AQ)
- carboplatin (Paraplatin)
- epirubicin (Pharmorubicin)
- docetaxel (Taxotere)
- irinotecan (Camptosar)
- oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)
- paclitaxel (Taxol)
- doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
- mitomycin (Mutamycin)
- etoposide (Vepesid)
Some examples of chemotherapy regimens (a combination of 2 or more drugs) used for stomach cancer are:
- ECX – epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine
- ECF – epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil
- DCF (TCF) – docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil
- cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil
- cisplatin and capecitabine
Radiation therapy is sometimes given during the same time period as chemotherapy for stomach cancer. This is called chemoradiation. The type of radiation therapy usually given in combination with chemotherapy is external beam radiation therapy, and it’s most often given with 5-fluoruracil, cisplatin or both. Carboplatin and paclitaxel may also be given with radiation therapy. These chemotherapy drug combinations help make the cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy.
Information about specific cancer drugs
Details on specific drugs change quite regularly. Find out more about sources of drug information and where to get details on specific drugs.
Questions to ask about chemotherapy
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What’s the lifetime risk of getting cancer?
The latest Canadian Cancer Statistics report shows about half of Canadians are expected to be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime.