Plasma cell disorders that are related to multiple myeloma include:
Primary amyloidosis (also known as AL amyloidosis) is an uncommon disorder of the plasma cells that is related to multiple myeloma. Primary amyloidosis could also be associated with other B cell cancers, such as various types of lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
The light chains of the immunoglobulin, and other substances in the blood, produce a sticky protein called amyloid. Amyloid builds up in organs and interferes with their function. It may affect the:
About 10%–15% of people with multiple myeloma will develop amyloidosis. Treatment for amyloidosis is similar to treatment for multiple myeloma. It targets the abnormal plasma cells.
Heavy chain disease is not usually associated with multiple myeloma. It occurs with other blood cancers, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Sometimes people with heavy chain disease develop plasma cell leukemia or a lymphoma that resembles an aggressive myeloma (called anaplastic myeloma) in the later stages of the disease.
In heavy chain disease, a genetic defect causes plasma cells to produce incomplete immunoglobulin molecules that only have the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. There are 3 types of heavy chain disease, which are classified according to the type of heavy chain.
IgA heavy chain disease
IgG heavy chain disease
IgM heavy chain disease
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