Risk factors for fallopian tube cancer
A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. It could be a behaviour, substance or condition. Most cancers are the result of many risk factors. But sometimes fallopian tube cancer develops in women who don’t have any of the risk factors described below.
Most women who develop fallopian tube cancer are between the ages of 40 and 60 years, with an average age of 55 years.
The risk factors of fallopian tube cancer are poorly understood. Because it is such a rare cancer, fairly common conditions are unlikely risk factors. But fallopian tube cancer and epithelial ovarian carcinoma share many of the same risk factors. Some experts think that this may be because some epithelial ovarian carcinomas can begin in a fallopian tube.
Some women can have a higher than average risk for fallopian tube cancer. Talk to your doctor about your risk. If you are at higher than average risk, you may need a personal plan for testing.
Risk factors are generally listed in order from most to least important. But in most cases, it is impossible to rank them with absolute certainty.
|Known risk factors||Possible risk factors|
Known risk factors
There is convincing evidence that the following factors increase your risk for fallopian tube cancer.
Sometimes fallopian tube cancer develops in a family more often than would be expected by chance. It may not be clear if the family’s pattern of cancer is due to chance, shared lifestyle factors, a genetic risk passed from parents to children or a combination of these factors. If several of your relatives have breast, ovarian or fallopian tube cancer, you can have a higher risk of developing fallopian tube cancer.
Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2) normally help control the growth of cancer cells. Changes in these genes (which can be inherited from either parent) increase the risk for breast and ovarian cancers. These changes also increase the risk for fallopian tube cancer. But not all women with BRCA gene mutations will develop fallopian tube cancer.
Fallopian tube cancer is likely linked to an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation if the woman has:
- several family members with breast, ovarian or fallopian tube cancer
- one or more female relatives who developed breast cancer before they were 50 years of age
- a relative with both breast and ovarian cancer
- family members who developed cancer in both breasts (called bilateral breast cancer)
- a male relative with breast cancer
- Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jewish ancestry
Women with fallopian tube cancer related to a BRCA gene mutation also have a higher than average risk of developing breast, ovarian and other cancers. Talk to your doctor about your risks. Genetic risk assessment and genetic testing may be an option for some women.
Possible risk factors
The following factors have been linked with fallopian tube cancer, but there is not enough evidence to show they are known risk factors. More research is needed to clarify the role of these factors for fallopian tube cancer.
Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is used to manage the symptoms of menopause (such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and mood swings).
Research information about HRT and the incidence of primary fallopian tube cancer is limited because of the few cases of this type of cancer. Information that has been collected shows that HRT may increase the risk of fallopian tube cancer.
Research studies have shown that never giving birth may increase a woman’s risk of developing fallopian tube cancer. Fallopian tube cancer is seen in women with a history of infertility (inability to conceive).
Unknown risk factors
It isn’t known whether or not chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes is linked with fallopian tube cancer. It may be that researchers can’t show a definite link or that studies have had different results. Although inflammation is often present with fallopian tube cancer, chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes (called salpingitis) usually involves both tubes while the inflammation associated with fallopian tube cancer is usually just in the tube with cancer. More research is needed to see if chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes is a risk factor for fallopian tube cancer.
Questions to ask your healthcare team
To make the decisions that are right for you, ask your healthcare team questions about risks.
Treatment that replaces female sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone or both) when they are no longer produced by the ovaries.
HRT may be given to women who are post-menopausal.
Also called menopausal hormone therapy.