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What is a childhood brain or spinal cord tumour?
A brain tumour starts in the cells of the brain. A spinal cord tumour starts in the cells of the spinal cord. Cells in the brain or spinal cord sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to non-cancerous, or benign, conditions such as brain or spinal cord cysts. Cells in the brain and spinal cord can also change and form tumours. All brain and spinal cord tumours can cause serious or life-threatening symptoms.
Together, the brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is the control centre of your body. It is a soft mass of nerve tissue protected by a bony covering called the skull. The spinal cord runs through the spine. It contains nerves that send information between the brain and the rest of the body.
Describing childhood brain and spinal cord tumours
Brain and spinal cord tumours are classified based on their grade. The grade of a tumour tells you how quickly it is growing and how likely it is to spread.
- Low-grade, or benign, tumours grow slowly. They don’t usually grow into surrounding tissues or spread to other areas of the brain. Some low-grade tumours may develop into high-grade tumours.
- High-grade, or malignant, tumours grow quickly. They can grow into nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the brain or spine. Malignant tumours that start in the brain and spinal cord rarely spread outside the CNS.
Types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumours
In children, brain tumours start most often in glial cells. These cells cover and support the nerve cells. A tumour that starts in glial cells is called a glioma. There are many different types of gliomas, including astrocytoma and brain stem glioma.
Other types of tumours can also develop in the brain. These include primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) and germ cell tumours. Rare brain tumours include schwannoma and meningioma.
Tumours that develop in the brain can also occur in the spinal cord. But spinal cord tumours are rare in children. The most common types of tumours that can develop in the spinal cord include astrocytoma, ependymoma and ganglioglioma.
When a tumour starts in brain cells, it is called a primary brain tumour. Other types of cancer can spread to the brain, but this is not the same disease as primary brain cancer. Cancer that starts in another part of the body and spreads to the brain is called brain metastasis. It is not treated in the same way as primary brain cancer. Find out more about brain metastasis.