Bladder cancer

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Non-cancerous tumours of the bladder

A non-cancerous, or benign, tumour of the bladder is a growth that does not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Non-cancerous tumours are not usually life-threatening. They are usually removed by surgery and do not usually come back (recur).

Signs and symptoms of a non-cancerous tumour may include blood in the urine and difficulty urinating. A cystoscopy is usually used to look inside the bladder and diagnose benign tumours.

The following types of non-cancerous tumours can develop in the bladder.

Papillomas start in urothelial cells, or transitional cells. These cells make up the urothelium (also called the transitional epithelium). The urothelium is the lining in the bladder and urinary tract. Papillomas grow out of the lining of the bladder into the bladder cavity. In rare cases, some people with bladder papillomas develop a papilloma somewhere else in the urinary system.

Inverted papillomas also develop on the lining of the bladder. These tumours have a smooth surface. They grow deeper into the layers of the bladder wall.

Leiomyomas of the bladder start in the muscle layer of the bladder wall. These tumours are made up of an overgrowth of smooth muscle cells.

Fibromas start in fibrous connective tissues in the bladder wall.

Hemangiomas are made up of a mass or lump of blood vessels in the bladder wall.

Neurofibromas begin in nerve tissue in the bladder.

Lipomas start in fat cells in the layer of fat that surrounds the bladder.

cystoscopy

A procedure that uses an endoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and lens) to examine or treat the bladder and urethra.

Cells or tissue may be removed for examination under a microscope. Doctors may also use cystoscopy to remove the prostate or small tumours or stones from the bladder.

The type of endoscope used for this procedure is called a cystoscope.

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