Bladder cancer

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Non-cancerous conditions of the bladder

A non-cancerous, or benign, condition of the bladder is a change to bladder cells, but it is not cancer. Non-cancerous conditions do not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body and are not usually life-threatening.

There are several types of non-cancerous conditions of the bladder. They may cause symptoms that look like bladder cancer or a precancerous condition of the bladder.

Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection is the most common non-cancerous bladder condition. It is caused by a bacterial infection of the bladder and urethra. The signs and symptoms may include:

  • fever, chills and malaise
  • blood in the urine (called hematuria)
  • burning or pain during urination
  • the need to urinate often (called urinary frequency)
  • an intense need to urinate (called urinary urgency)
  • urinary stream is weaker than normal

Urinary tract infections are usually diagnosed by a physical exam and urine tests. They are usually treated with antibiotics to fight bacterial infections. Medicines may also be given to treat fever or pain.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition where the prostate is enlarged (increased in size). This condition can make it hard to urinate or may cause other symptoms similar to symptoms of bladder cancer. It is usually treated with drugs or surgery to reduce the size of the prostate.

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are also called nephrolithiasis. They are hard deposits of minerals in the kidney. They can cause blood in the urine and pain. They are managed by taking medicines and flushing the kidneys with fluids. The fluids may be given through a needle in a vein (by IV) and by having the person drink more fluids. Sometimes kidney stones are removed with surgery.


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