Cancer statistics tell us how many people in Canada are diagnosed with and die from cancer each year. They show us the trends in new cases and cancer deaths. Cancer statistics also tell us the likelihood of surviving a cancer diagnosis and the number of people who are alive after a cancer diagnosis.
Canadian provinces and territories collect data on cancer cases and cancer deaths. These data are combined to provide a picture of the impact of cancer for all of Canada.
Statistics are an important part of planning and measuring the success of cancer control.
Incidence and mortality
Incidence is the total number of new cases of cancer. Mortality is the number of deaths due to cancer. To provide the most current cancer statistics, researchers use statistical methods to estimate the number of new cancer cases and deaths until actual data become available.
An estimated 196,900 new cases of cancer and 78,000 deaths from cancer will occur in Canada in 2015. (The number of estimated new cases does not include 78,300 new non-melanoma skin cancer cases.)
Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada and is responsible for 30% of all deaths.
Note: The total of all deaths in 2011 in Canada was 242,074. Adapted from: Statistics Canada. Leading causes of deaths in Canada, 2011, CANSIM Table 102-0522
It is estimated that in 2015:
- 100,500 Canadian men will be diagnosed with cancer and 41,000 men will die from cancer.
- 96,400 Canadian women will be diagnosed with cancer and 37,000 women will die from cancer.
- On average, 539 Canadians will be diagnosed with cancer every day.
- On average, 214 Canadians will die from cancer every day.
Lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer are the most common types of cancer in Canada (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). Based on 2015 estimates:
- These cancers account for over half (51%) of all new cancer cases.
- Prostate cancer accounts for about one-quarter (24%) of all new cancer cases in men.
- Lung cancer accounts for 14% of all new cases of cancer.
- Breast cancer accounts for about one-quarter (26%) of all new cancer cases in women.
- Colorectal cancer accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases.
Trends in cancer rates
Cancer is a disease that mostly affects Canadians aged 50 and older, but it can occur at any age.
Across Canada, cancer incidence rates vary because of differences in the type of population, risk factors (including risk behaviours) and early detection practices. Similarly, rates of cancer death vary because of differences in incidence, but also potentially differences in access to and outcomes of cancer control activities (for example, screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up) across the country.
Chances (probability) of developing or dying from cancer
Based on 2010 estimates:
- 2 out of 5 Canadians (45% of men and 42% of women) are expected to develop cancer during their lifetimes.
- 1 out of 4 Canadians (29% of men and 24% of women) is expected to die from cancer.
Prevalence is the total number of people living with a diagnosis of cancer at a certain point in time. This statistic can be useful in planning healthcare services for people recently diagnosed with cancer and for cancer survivors.
In 2009, about 810,045 Canadians diagnosed with cancer in the previous 10 years were alive. This represents about 2.4% of the Canadian population or 1 out of every 41 Canadians.
The number of newly diagnosed cancer cases in Canada is increasing, but survival rates are also increasing. These improved survival rates account for the growing number of Canadian cancer survivors.
Survival is the percentage of people who are alive at some point in time after their cancer diagnosis. There are many different ways of measuring and reporting cancer survival statistics. Most survival statistics are reported for a specific time period, namely 5 years.
- Based on 2006–2008 estimates, 63% of Canadians diagnosed with cancer are expected to survive for 5 years or more after a cancer diagnosis
- Survival rates vary from low to high depending on the type of cancer. For example, based on 2006–2008 estimates:
- The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer is low (17%).
- The 5-year relative survival rate for colorectal cancer is average (64%).
- The 5-year relative survival rate is high for prostate cancer (96%) and breast cancer (88%).
- Between 1992–1994 and 2006–2008, survival rates increased from 56% to 63% for all cancers combined.
For more information, go to Canadian Cancer Statistics publication.